C++ and Python are general-purpose programming languages with significant similarities and distinctions. You’ll be able to choose which language you want to study and use more fully thanks to the differences.
In this article, find out what C++ can do that Python can’t and find out about some of their significant differences.
What Are C++ And Python?
Here we will briefly describe both C++ and Python as the introduction to the article.
Keep reading if you are interested in a short summary of both or skip it if you know this already!
What Is C++?
Bjarne Stroustrup introduced the programming language C++ in New Jersey in 1979.
Since it is a general-purpose programming language, software for many applications may be created using it. Because it was developed as an extension of the C language, it was initially known as C with classes rather than C++.
Given that it combines elements of both high-level and low-level programming languages, C++ is regarded as an intermediate-level programming language.
What Is Python?
Guido van Rossum first presented Python as a computer language in 1991.
Its name comes from the television program Monty Python’s Flying Circus. Python is an advanced object-oriented programming language. Given that it is similar to pseudocode, it is among the simplest and easiest languages to learn.
In October 2000, it received a 2.0 update that added new functionality, including garbage collection for memory management.
Python is frequently used in statistics, data analysis, and machine learning.
Programming styles supported by Python include procedural, object-oriented, and functional programming. Additionally, it has dynamic typing and binding capabilities.
What Are The Differences Between C++ And Python?
Here are some of the significant differences between C++ and Python.
Remember, these are just some of them since there are so many differences between them.
1. Easy to Learn
The simplicity of learning is one of the most important considerations for new programmers.
The programmer will only find it convenient to continue learning the programming language if it is challenging.
Because of its syntax’s resemblance to English, Python is, in this scenario, quite simple to learn.
In contrast to Python, C++ is a challenging language since it is built on object-oriented principles that deal with memory allocation.
Incorrect C++ programming hurts the system and can potentially destroy it practically.
The following reasons why the Python programming language is significantly slower than the C++ programming language.
Python is developed in the C programming language, making memory management exceedingly challenging. Still, in C++, memory may be assigned to variables and released when the function no longer requires the variable.
Unlike native languages like C/C++, Python code is interpreted at runtime rather than converted to native code at build time, making Python slower than C++.
Python is an interpreted language. Therefore before it can be executed as machine code, which requires first being compiled into ByteCode, the Python code must pass through many abstraction layers.
The PVM then interprets and runs the byte code (Python Virtual Machine).
C++ is more effective since the source code is converted into Binary Code, which the CPU can execute immediately.
3. Memory Administration
An operator must allocate memory to new variables and release memory from the variable when it is no longer needed. It must be done efficiently for C++ to have effective memory management; otherwise, memory leaks will occur because C++ lacks built-in garbage collection and dynamic memory management.
An operator must utilize delete functions properly to prevent memory leaks. Otherwise, memory leaks in software would paradoxically increase the system’s memory utilization, which will cause issues because the system has a limited amount of memory and is expensive.
On the other hand, Python can create and deallocate the memory on its own since it contains an internal garbage collection and dynamic memory management system.
In a programming language like C++, the syntax is a collection of predefined protocols or rules we must adhere to. In addition, the multi-paradigm nature and more complex syntax of C++ make it challenging to comprehend and write.
Learning C++ can be particularly challenging for novices and programmers without familiarity with low-level languages.
Curly brackets and semicolons are used after statements while programming in C++, which calls for specific abilities and understanding.
Python does not adhere to certain programming conventions, unlike C++. However, Python is considered simple to write due to its simple syntax.
When compared to C++, Python makes it considerably simpler to write applications. In addition, Python is a user-friendly programming language for beginners because it prioritizes readability, making it simpler to comprehend and use.
Programmers may more readily grasp the code and dive headfirst into the realm of development thanks to using indentation guidelines identical to English.
According to the definition, the C++ function takes a predefined kind of value and returns it.
For instance, if a function is called to add two integer values, it will only accept integer values as input and provide an integer value as the output.
The type of the argument and the type of its return value are not constrained in Python.
A function in Python is a collection of connected statements that accomplishes a specific goal.
A program may be divided into more manageable and modular sections using functions. The task of functions is to structure and manage the program as it gets bigger and bigger. Additionally, it saves time and makes the code adaptable.
Since C++ is a statically typed language, runtime correction of mistakes is not as necessary. As a result, it may also produce runtime code that is more reliable and quick, making it a high-performance language.
Python is dynamic. Therefore there’s a chance that errors or undesirable circumstances might occur while the program is running. Python underperforms C++ in terms of performance.
What Can C++ Do That Python Can’t? Examples
Here we will connect some of the differences we described above.
As said, Python is a language with dynamic typing. There are two significant effects of this.
The first one is that certain types of logical errors that a C++ compiler might catch at compile time cannot be rejected by the compiler.
Next, while C++ compilers are frequently able to create inline code, certain (even most) variables cannot have their types known at compile time, forcing actions on those variables to be done by dynamically dispatching a method call (a somewhat slow procedure) (which has no overhead). Therefore, C++ is a language that is speedier by nature.
Then, C++ gives the developer complete control over ensuring that code is thread-safe, enabling effective multithreading.
Additionally, C++ gives programmers much more control over memory management by, for example:
- allowing generic containers to allocate user-specified object types inside their structures (resulting in lower overhead and better locality of reference than Python is capable of),
- allocating objects in specific memory locations (for example, so that multiple objects can be deleted in a single operation,
- or to allocate them in a memory-mapped file),
- or using developer-supplied custom allocators.
Additionally, because C++ is flexibly typed, you can utilize a memory location for one kind of data and then consider it as holding a different type.
If you know what you’re doing, you can use this to perform runtime native code creation, direct manipulation of file structures without having to manually extract data as you would have to in Python, dynamic loading of code modules, and a broad range of additional purposes.
However, operations of this type are dangerous (and the language specification states that programs that do this have “undefined behavior”).
Because of this, operating systems may be developed in C++ rather than Python.